Islam in Argentina

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Slowly, Argentina now more accepted Islam. The number of Muslims has reached three million people. Argentina name is always synonymous with football. A number of names soccer players of the world are born in this country. For example, Diego Armando Maradona, Gabriel Omar Batistuta, Mario Kempes, Lionel Messi, Carlos Tevez, Maxi Rodriguez, and Gabriel Heinze. Maradona is one of the world’s best players of the 20th century, along with Edson Arantes do Nascimento, the Brazilian, who fondly called Pele.
Maradona is a very popular name in that country rather than the name of the president of Argentina. He even equated with ‘the Saviour’ for Argentina, thanks to the ‘hand of god goal’ which he created in the 1986 World Cup semi-final goal against England. And, thanks to a goal that also, Argentina advanced to the 1986 World Cup final, eventually became the 1986 World Cup champions. Some people think Maradona’s Argentina as a ‘god’.

However, on the other hand, not many people know the unique predicate that also carried the state which has an area of 2.7804 million square meters. Amid the euphoria of the people who love football, there are Muslims who live in the midst of a majority of Christians.

Yes, Argentina is one of the populous Muslim countries very much. In fact, the biggest compared to other countries in Latin America. Then, how many Muslims in this country? The question was certainly not feasible for juxtaposed and compared with Middle Eastern or Asian country, which is the largest Muslim country in the world. Because, Latin America is a Christian missionary territory since the area was conquered Europe in the early 16th century. And, amid the cold war between the West and the Islamic ideology today, exactly the teachings of Islam can flourish and thrive there.

Although the Muslim population in a country that has the official name of the Argentine Nation was ranked fourth, nuance and religious proselytizing Muslims is so high there. This can be evidenced by the establishment of a number of mosques in Argentina. In Buenos Aires, the capital of Argentina, has established a large mosque in 1989.The mosque is now a center of worship and proselytizing of Muslims there. In some cities in Argentina, now also stand firm mosques and stately. Number has reached tens. Islamic syiar increasingly widespread in Argentina after an Islamic studies center, named The King Fahd Islamic Cultural Center, built in 1996. Islamic studies center building is located in a middle-class neighborhood in Palermo, Buenos Aires. The project which is cooperation between the government of Argentina and Saudi Arabia was built on an area of 34 thousand square meters. This study center equipped with building a mosque, library, two schools, parks, and ample parking.

In this place, usually Muslims gather and assess about science and Islamic culture. Especially during Ramadan, chanting culture and values of Islam is so rife echoed. Growing rapidly regarding the number of Muslims in Argentina, it’s hard to find figure. Some data sources mention different figures. According to the records of The CIA World’s Fact Book, in 2004, of a total population of Argentina, who reached 39,144,753 people, only two percent who embraced Islam, which is about 782,895 souls, the rest are Roman Catholic, Protestant, and Jewish. Meanwhile, Roman Catholic is the majority religion in a country known for dance tangonya it. However, according to one newspaper report in Argentina, Clerein, the new Argentine citizens to convert to Islam now increased to 900 thousand people. And, if the Muslim immigrants who were there added up as a whole, could reach more than three million people. Thus, estimates of Muslim population in Argentina increased from initially 700 thousand now become more than three million inhabitants.

Increasing Muslim populations in Argentina is recognized Centre for Islamic Studies in Argentina, Centro de Estudios Islamicos, institutions that focus on preaching and the study of Islamic culture in Argentina. The institute is mentioned in this century Islam growing rapidly in Argentina, the indication is the increasing number of adherents of Islam.

Much argentine society became Islam. Allegations that the United States intensively conducted and other Western countries to the Muslims, since the tragedy of 11 September 2001, as perpetrators of global terrorism, it could create suspicion of Muslims in Argentina. However, once after a two-way dialogue, tension and suspicion disappear by itself and many negative allegations posted on the Muslims, not so ignored Argentine society. While Muslims in Argentina, have shown spirit and nationalism. This is what makes passionate message of Islam is increasing there.
Like most Muslims in the world, Muslims in Argentina also made daily based on their respective professions. They worked from morning to evening. For the metropolis, they perform worship by not abandon their obligations as professionals. While those who live in rural areas, they live in harmony and coexistence. As dusk arrived, they gathered again at home. Generally, because the location of the mosque opposite the location of the house, they perform Maghreb prayer with the family in their homes.

Migrants
the role of immigrants from the Middle East, like Syria and Lebanon, making the message of Islam in Argentina looks increasingly crowded. The fact that many migrants is introduce Islam to the population of Argentina. They migrated to the territory of Argentina in the early 20th century, and formed settlements in the midst of the native population. They live in harmony and peaceful without any sense of suspicion and hostility.

However, long before the arrival of Lebanese and Syrian immigrants, the Muslim community has been formed on Argentine soil. The arrival of the first Muslim immigrants has coincided with the arrival of Spanish explorers and Portuguese nationals in the territory of Argentina. The number of Muslim immigrants continues to grow after the Argentine became the colony of Spain.
Among the most famous Arab immigrant families Menem, who came from Syria and a Muslim? Former Argentine president, Carlos Menem, is one of the descendants of this family of Syrian immigrants. Although his ancestors were Muslim, he himself is a devout Roman Catholic. Because this is the religion factor, Carlos Menem allowed participating running for president of Argentina. In the prevailing constitutional rules, the president of Argentina must be a Roman Catholic. However, this rule is abolished in the 1994 constitutional reform.
It is estimated there are now approximately 3.5 million people of Arab descent Argentina. The Argentine Arab descent is not only converted to Islam, but also Christians and Jews. In fact, you could say most of the descendants of Arab immigrants are Christians and Jews, and perhaps just less than a quarter of the descendants of Arab immigrants who truly Muslim.

Active Learning Morals Messenger
As a country with the largest Muslim populations in South America, Islam has developed quite rapidly in Argentina. Therefore, the Muslim community in this country feels the need to introduce Tango figure of the Prophet Muhammad, the bearer of the message of Islam, to the people of Argentina. According to the latest research results pollsters the United States, the Pew Research Center, said that Argentina has 800 thousand Muslims. However, several other institutions mentioned, the number of followers of Islam in Argentina to reach three million people.

Islamic Center of Buenos Aires in cooperation with the Organization of the Islamic World, held a level of education to introduce the figure of the Prophet Muhammad to the people of Argentina. As the report released by Saudi Press Agency (SPA) in February 2009 and then, levels of education is one way to recognize the figure of the Prophet Muhammad.

The implementation of this education, as quoted by SPA, aims to study the sides in a case example of the Messenger of Islam. Thus, the expected non-Muslim communities in Argentina have come to know in greater depth the human figure the Great, the Prophet Muhammad.

Saudi Arabia Embassy in Buenos Aires is responsible for administering the program. Implementation of Islamic education program was conducted in the year 2009. More than 50 people from the mubaligh Muslims, mosque imams, and the committee of Islamic organizations throughout Argentina, will follow the education program.

Arabic Glossary
In addition to the rather large population, the existence of Islam in Argentina can also be seen from a number of names of places and cities in this country, who use these terms rooted and derived from the language of Muslims, namely Arabic.

Dr. Youssef Mroueh, of the Preparatory Committee for International Festivals to celebrate the millennium of the Muslims arrival to the Amricas, in his essay entitled Precolumbian Muslims in America say; in the area of Argentina are the name of the cities of Cordoba and Bahia.

Cordoba is a city in the Islamic caliphate that had ruled Spain in the region today. In Argentina, Cordoba was the name the capital of a province in Argentina is located about 700 kilometers northwest of Buenos Aires.

While in the history of Islamic civilization, Bahia is one of the palace relics of the glory of Islam in the city of Marrakech, Morocco. While in Argentina, there is a town called Bahia Blanca. The city is located in southwestern Argentine capital, Buenos Aires. (badrislam.blogspot.com)

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History Islam in Suriname

 

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Muslims smarten to learn religion. Yet, they constrained the limitations of teachers and books. Republic of Suriname is one of the smallest countries in America. It is only about 163 thousand square kilometers. However, in terms of population demographics, this state could be the most ‘colorful’ with ethnic diversity, culture, and religion.

Indeed, Suriname is a country of former Dutch colony. The Dutch have been in colonialized since 1667. Previously, the country formerly known as Netherlands Guiana named this colonized by the Spanish, Portuguese, and English. Independence in 1975, it has the official name of Republic of Suriname.

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The original inhabitants were the Indians, ethnicities Americas. In the past, the Dutch relied heavily on the plantations of Surinam. Thousands of slaves were shipped from West Africa since the 1700s to be employed in the sugar cane, cotton, cocoa, and coffee. The people of West Africa brought the first Islamic religion in this country. In 1863, the Kingdom of the Netherlands ended the system of slavery. This policy is consequential to the sustainability of plantation jobs in colonial countries, including Suriname. Many slaves left the plantation to seek a more decent livelihood in other jobs. This condition lasted for a while.

Realizing the situation could disrupt the economy, the Netherlands also took rescue efforts. They recruited workers with very cheap payroll. They are partly drawn from several countries and regions colonies, including from Java, Indonesia. Most came from Central Java. At that time, the region’s most densely populated, but the low level of economy. For the first time, groups of immigrant workers Java as many as 94 people arrived in Suriname on August 9, 1890 after a long journey by ship Prins Willem II. They were recruited by the De Nederlandsche Handel Maatschappij and subsequently employed in the sugar cane and sugar company Marrienburg.

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Four years later, the same company that brought the second group consisted of 582 Javanese. Since the year 1890 until 1930, as many as 32,965 Javanese contract laborers employed in Suriname. Given the contractual arrangement, they will work for about five years. After that, workers may choose to stay in Suriname or return to Java. Many of those who returned to Java, but some choose settled in Suriname. They bought Islamic religion in Suriname because Java people are a lot of Muslim (source Republika)

Islam in Meksiko

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Religion Islam came to Mexico through the intermediary of immigrants from the Middle East. It is a book by Pascual Almazan y hereje titled Un Un Musulman which tells of a Muslim named Yusof bin Alabaz, a clue about Islam first arrival to this country.

Based on the book, Joseph lived in the 16th century. He lives in Andalusia, but survived the onslaught of replies the Christians there. Yusof then fled to Morocco.

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However, in the middle of the trip, he was captured by pirates who then took him to Mexico. For fear as slaves, he was trying to escape and succeeded. After that, several years later Joseph lived in an area called Veracruz and spread the religion of Islam to the locals.

From there, the religion of Islam is growing throughout the country. Especially growing number of immigrants is arriving from the Middle East. That’s history. There is no concrete evidence that says that Islam has existed in that country before the arrival of Arab immigrants.

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Currently in the country there are many Middle Eastern immigrants. They come from Lebanon, Morocco, Egypt, and Syria. However, it is not known how many Muslims among them. It was only when professors from Georgetown University, Theresa Velcamp, conducted research in 1999, known

a little more about them.
According to him, immigrants from Syria and Lebanon are the largest immigrant community with an estimated 200 thousand inhabitants. In addition, Muslims mostly live in big cities like Mexico City, Monterey, Guadalajara, Ciudad Obregon, and Chiapas.

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Indian tribes in Mexico

Indian tribes in Mexico are droves to Islam. The government also began to ‘hot’. Having long been a base of Catholics, southern Mexico is quickly changing as the search field of faith. Including the Islamic religion, which was recorded successfully embed its influence after hundreds of Mayan Indians becoming Muslim. And the Mexican government had made concerned about the outbreak of ‘clash of cultures’ in their own backyard."In Islam, does not recognize tribal and ethnic differences," said a Muslim convert the Maya to the media from Germany, Der Spiegel, when asked why a convert. He admitted to study many religions before finally choosing Islam as their religion.

 

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A sense of religious enthusiasm is understandable. In his hometown in Chiapas, the poorest region in Mexico, a traditional tribe is often seen as second class citizens. Whites and Mestizos were always threatened them. In fact, in the city of San Cristobal de las Casas, the largest city in the south, those indigenous Indians must get out into the street when a white man approached them on the sidewalk.

But life goes on. Gomez, 23, for example, converted to Islam since eight years ago. He had changed his name to Abraham and pilgrimage. According penuturannya, about seven years ago, embraced Islam for the Indians in the region still is something that anomaly. But now, veiled Muslim woman is already a common sight that you can find on the streets of San Cristobal.

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About 300 Indians from the tribe Tzozil, also has converted to Islam in recent years and the number is still increasing. The fact is clearly worrying the Mexican government. As a result, the government is suspicious of this new Muslims on charges of subversive activity and has spread the secret service agents to observe the Maya-Muslim. Mexican President Vicente Fox’s is claiming to worry about the influence of the radical fundamentalist Alkaidah in the region.

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Nevertheless, the Indians would not be affected by concerns of government, ranging from accusations become extremists, entering to political affairs, or whatever. Only one thing they want to do, namely worship best.

Revival of Islam in Bosnia

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Teenagers in Bosnia have rediscovered their Islamic roots to the parents after they failed to achieve this. A U.S. magazine published a report on "Islamic awakening" in Sarajevo.

Four women who are friends since childhood and wear Hijab told Time magazine how they became more religious and started to wear Hijab.
"This is very strange to them," said saudina Husic, a student of Arabic and Persian."But they could use a veil."

"Nearly 15 years after the war ……., capital of Sarajevo, had an awakening of religion," said a statement.

"We spent the morning with shopping, and then praying together," Husic said.
However, the rise of Islamic religious leaders in Bosnia connects directly to the events of the massacre horror which they witnessed in the 1990s, when they were children.
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"This generation grew overnight," said the mufti of Bosnia – Mustafa Efendi Ceric told Time magazine.

"We used to have a generation that questioned whether God exist. And now we have a very religious generation different from previous generations.
"Husic and his friends is Bosnian Muslim teenagers, they used to see how their home in Mostar to be destroyed and their neighbors attack each other with each other in an ethnic and religious conflicts that continue, two out of four teen girls have lost their parents, while others have seen with my own eyes how their uncle dragged from homes and massacred.

Imam mosque of King Fahd – Nezim Halilovic said that Bosnia is now experiencing a religious awakening while still higher than under communist rule by the dictator who ruled Yugoslavia – Joisp Broz Tito.

Halilovic also said that Serbian politicians are now looking at Sarajevo by a negative lens, they say that the Muslims in Bosnia in general have links with Islamic militants in order to get sympathy from the West, and they already have stereotypes about Islam phobia.

"You can see more Muslims in Paris and London," he said. “So, why the people of Bosnia to return Islam become a problem?"

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Bosnian Muslims have experienced torture and murder of ethnic cleansing campaign by Serbian Christians in the 1990s, when Serbia tried to create whole regions in Bosnia only to citizens of Serbia.

The worst examples of mass slaughter that happened were some 8,000 Bosnian Muslims near Srebrenica were killed, and this event is said to be the worst incident came after the Second World War. (Eramuslim)

Muslims in Palestina and Israel

The Arabic word Islam means voluntary surrender to the will of God (Allah) and obedience to his commands.  Muslims are people who accept the Islamic way of life and who practice it.

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Three fundamental beliefs of Islam are: Tawhid — oneness of Allah, Risalah — prophethood, andAkhirah — life after death.Islam  has it roots in revelations which Muhammad believed he received from the Angel Gabriel between 610 and 622 AD.  These revelations written down in the Qur’an (which means recitation) form the core of Islam.  Muslims believe the Arabic text to be the perfect, immutable, and untranslatable words of God embodied in human language. 

 

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Muhamad is seen as the "seal of the prophets", the last in a series of God’s messengers that include Jewish and Christian figures such as Abraham, Moses, and Jesus.  The Quran (Koran) incorporates many of the biblical traditions associated with these figures. 

 

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The Temple Mount, or Haram al-Sharif, in Jerusalem is revered by Muslims as a holy place, third in importance to the Ka’bah in Mecca and the Mosque of Mohammed in Medina.

 

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Islam teaches decency, humility, and good manners.  And the most valued virtues are keeping promises, honesty, justice, fair play, helping the poor and needy, respect for parents, teachers and elders, love for children, and good relations with neighbors. Islam condemns enmity, back-biting, slander, blasphemy, ridicule, rudeness and arrogance.  Muslims are obligated to pray five times a day, either individually or in congregation.  the word mosque comes from the Arabic word mesjid which means a place of adoration.

[photo on right – view of Damascus Gate in Jerusalem]

more moslem picture on the world

more moslem picture on the world

click –> www.moslempic.blogspot.com

Islam in England

History, Early history

Although Islam is generally thought of as being a recent arrival in the United Kingdom, there has been contact between Britons and Muslims for many centuries. An early example would be the decision of Offa, the eighth-century King of Mercia (one of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms existing at that time), to have coins minted with an Islamic inscription on them – copies of coins issued by the near-contemporary Muslim ruler Al-Mansur. It is thought that they were minted to facilitate trade with the expanding Islamic empire in Spain.[3]

Muslim scholarship, especially early Islamic philosophy and Islamic science, was well-known among the learned in England by 1386, when Geoffrey Chaucer was writing. In the Prologue to the Canterbury Tales, there is among the pilgrims wending their way to Canterbury, a ‘Doctour of Phisyk’ whose learning included Rhazes (Al-Razi), Avicenna (Ibn Sina, Arabic ابن سينا) and Averroes (Ibn Rushd, Arabic ابن رشد). Ibn Sina’s The Canon of Medicine (1025) was a standard text for medical students well into the 18th century.[4] Roger Bacon, one of the earliest European advocates of the scientific method,[5] was inspired by the works of early Muslim scientists.[6][7] In particular, his work on optics in the 13th century was largely based on the Book of Optics (1021) by Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen).[8]

Since the publication of Professor John Makdisi’s “The Islamic Origins of the Common Law” in the North Carolina Law Review,[9] there has been controversy over whether English common law was inspired by medieval Islamic law.[10] Makdisi drew comparisons between the “royal English contract protected by the action of debt” and the “Islamic Aqd”, the “English assize of novel disseisin” and the “Islamic Istihqaq”, and the “English jury” and the “Islamic Lafif” in the classical Maliki school of Islamic jurisprudence, and argued that these institutions were transmitted to England by the Normans,[9] “through the close connection between the Norman kingdoms of Roger II in Sicily — ruling over a conquered Islamic administration — and Henry II in England.”[11] Makdisi also argued that the “law schools known as Inns of Court” in England (which he asserts are parallel to Madrasahs) may have also originated from Islamic law.[9] He states that the methodology of legal precedent and reasoning by analogy (Qiyas) are also similar in both the Islamic and common law systems.[12] Other legal scholars such as Monica Gaudiosi, Gamal Moursi Badr and A. Hudson have argued that the English trust and agency institutions, which were introduced by Crusaders, may have been adapted from the Islamic Waqf and Hawala institutions they came across in the Middle East.[13][14][15] Dr. Paul Brand also notes parallels between the Waqf and the trusts used to establish Merton College by Walter de Merton, who had connections with the Knights Templar, but Brand also points out that the Knights Templar were primarily concerned with fighting the Muslims rather than learning from them, making it less likely that they had knowledge of Muslim legal institutions.[10]

The first English convert to Islam mentioned by name is John Nelson.[16] 16th century writer Richard Hakluyt claimed he was forced to convert, though he mentions in the same story other Englishmen who had converted willingly.

This king had a son which was a ruler in an island called Gerbi, whereunto arrived an English ship called the Green Dragon, of the which was master one M. Blonket, who, having a very unhappy boy on that ship, and understanding that whosoever would turn Turk should be well entertained of the a yeoman of our Queen’s guard, whom the king’s son had enforced to turn Turk; his name was John Nelson.[17]

Portrait of Abd el-Ouahed ben Messaoud ben Mohammed Anoun, Moorish ambassador to Queen Elizabeth I in 1600
Portrait of Abd el-Ouahed ben Messaoud ben Mohammed Anoun, Moorish ambassador to Queen Elizabeth I in 1600

Captain John Ward of Kent was one of a number of British sailors who became pirates based in the Maghreb who also converted to Islam (see also Barbary pirates). Later, some Unitarians became interested in the faith, and Henry Stubbes wrote so favourably about Islam that it is thought he too had converted to the faith.

From 1609 to 1616, England lost 466 ships to Barbary pirates, who sold the passengers into slavery in North Africa.[18] In 1625, it was reported that Lundy, an island in the Bristol Channel which had been a pirate lair for much of the previous half century, had been occupied by three Turkish pirates who were threatening to burn Ilfracombe; Algerine rovers were using the island as a base in 1635, although the island had itself been attacked and plundered by a Spanish raid in 1633.[19] Around 1645, Barbary pirates under command of the Dutch renegade Jan Janszoon operating from the Moroccon port of Salé occupied Lundy, before he was expelled by the Penn. During this time there were reports of captured slaves being sent to Algiers and of the Islamic flag flying over Lundy.[20][21]

The Muslim Moors had a noticeable influence on the works of George Peele and William Shakespeare. Some of their works featured Moorish characters, such as Peele’s The Battle of Alcazar and Shakespeare’s The Merchant of Venice, Titus Andronicus and Othello, which featured a Moorish Othello as its title character. These works are said to have been inspired by several Moorish delegations from Morocco to Elizabethan England around 1600.[22] A portrait was painted of one of the Moorish ambassadors, Abd el-Ouahed ben Messaoud ben Mohammed Anoun.

Besides scientific and philosophical works, a number of Arabic fictional works were also translated into Latin and English during the 17th and 18th centuries. The most famous one was the One Thousand and One Nights (Arabian Nights), followed by Ibn Tufail’s Hayy ibn Yaqdhan, which was translated into Latin as Philosophus Autodidactus by Edward Pococke the Younger in 1671 and then into English by Simon Ockley in 1708. The English translation of Hayy ibn Yaqdhan, set on a desert island, may have inspired Daniel Defoe to write Robinson Crusoe, considered the first novel in English, in 1719.[23][24][25][26] Later translated literary works include Layla and Majnun and Ibn al-Nafis’ Theologus Autodidactus.

The first large group of Muslims in Britain arrived about 300 years ago. They were sailors recruited in India to work for the British East India Company, so it’s not surprising that the earliest Muslim communities were found in port towns. Naval cooks also came, many of them from the Sylhet Division of what is now Bangladesh. One of the earliest Bengali Muslim immigrants to Britain was Sake Dean Mahomet, a captain of the British East India Company. In 1810, he founded London’s first Indian restaurant, the Hindoostane Coffee House. He is also reputed for introducing shampoo and therapeutic massage in Britain.[27] There are other records of Sylhetis working in London restaurants since at least 1873.

The first Muslim community to permanently settle in the United Kingdom consisted of Yemeni sailors who arrived in ports such as Swansea, Liverpool and South Shields shortly after 1900. Later, some of them migrated to inland cities like Birmingham and Sheffield, where there are 23,819 Muslims.

Mosques also appeared in British seaports at this time; the first mosque in Britain is recorded as having been at 2 Glyn Rhondda Street, Cardiff, in 1860. [28] Second mosque is the Shah Jahan Mosque, Woking in 1889. The Woking Muslim Mission was established in 1913 by islamic missionaries. From the 1950s onwards, with considerable immigration to Britain from its former colonies (especially the Indian subcontinent and East Africa), large Muslim populations developed in many British towns and cities.
Demography and ethnic background

Source : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Islam_in_the_United_Kingdom & http://www.flickr.com